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(Pes Planus; Pes Planovalgus; Fallen Arches)
|Normal Foot Arch|
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- Ruptured or damaged tendon that supports the arch
- Medical conditions that affect muscles or nerves in the foot
- Degenerative changes in certain foot joints
- Ligament damage in the foot
- Family history
- Diseases that cause muscle or nerve damage, such as peripheral neuropathy, diabetes, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or muscular dystrophy
- Foot injuries
- Conditions of the feet that can injure foot tissue such as osteoarthritis
- Conditions present at birth, such as excess laxity of joint capsules and ligaments, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Calluses, blisters, or skin redness on the inner side of the foot
- A stiff foot
- Weakness or numbness of the foot
- Rapid wearing out of shoes—worn shoes lean in toward each other
- Difficulty or pain with activities like running—in the foot, knee or hip
Physical Therapy and Exercises
Orthotics and Support
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://www.aaos.org
American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons http://www.foothealthfacts.org
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association http://www.podiatrycanada.org
Nurses Entrepreneurial Foot Care Association of Canada http://www.nefca.ca
Adult acquired flatfoot. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00173. Updated December 2011. Accessed May 2, 2013.
Flat foot. UCSF Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.ucsfhealth.org/childrens/medical%5Fservices/ortho/foot/conditions/flatfoot/signs.html. Accessed May 2, 2013.
Pes planus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated November 12, 2010. Accessed February 20, 2014.
11/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Rome K, Ashford R, Evans A. Non-surgical interventions for paediatric pes planus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD006311.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 02/2014
- Update Date: 03/18/2013