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(PCS; Persistent PCS)
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- Microscopic brain damage from a mild brain injury
- Psychological or emotional stress that results from a mild brain injury
- Previous head injury or concussion
- Genetics—low cushioning in your brain may offer less protection
- Persistent headaches or lightheadedness after a mild brain injury
- Feeling depressed, or being diagnosed with depression after a mild brain injury
- Low social support , including not having a lot of close friends or people to confide in after a mild brain injury
- Learning difficulties
- Preoccupation with injury symptoms, and fear of real or imagined permanent brain damage
- Memory and attention tests
- Sports Concussion Assessment Tool
- Electroencephalogram (EEG)—to look for abnormal brain electrical activity
- Pain relievers
- Nerve blocks
- Talk about the problems you have related to PCS
- Learn how to cope with those problems in your life
- Use the child car seat or booster seat based on your child's age and weight
- Use your seat belt every time you drive or ride in a motor vehicle
- Wear a helmet to protect your head while playing sports, or riding a motorcycle, bicycle, or snowmobile
- Use window guards to keep children from falling out of the window
- Use safety gates at the top and bottom of stairs
Brain Injury Association of America National Help Line: 800-444-6443 http://www.biausa.org
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.on.ca
Bazarian J, Atabaki S. Predicting postconcussion syndrome after minor traumatic brain injury. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2001;8:788-795.
Bruhns J, Jagoda A. Mild traumatic brain injury. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009;76:129-137.
Concussion and mild TBI. Centers for Disease Control website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/index.html . Updated August 15, 2013. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated July 10, 2013. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Duff J. The usefulness of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy in the assessment and treatment of post-concussion syndrome. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2004;35:198-209.
Evans RW. The postconcussion syndrome and whiplash injuries: a question-and-answer review for primary care physicians. Prim Care. 2004; 31:1-17.
Jagoda A, Bazarian J, Bruns J, et al. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP)/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Panel. Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decision making in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52(6):714-748.
McCauley SR, Boake C, Levin HS, Contant CF, Song JX. Postconcussional disorder following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury: anxiety, depression, and social support as risk factors and comorbidities. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23:792-808.
Mittenberg W, Canyock EM, Condit D, Patton C. Treatment of post-concussion syndrome following mild head injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23:829-836.
Postconcussion syndrome: why this diagnosis is controversial and what treatments may help. Harvard Mental Health Letter. 2007;24:6.
Potential effects of TBI. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/outcomes.html . Updated September 25, 2012. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Thornton KE, Carmody DP. Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005;14:137-62,vii.
Zemek RL, Farion KJ, et al. Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(3):259-265.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013