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|Head and Neck|
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- Blood or fluid buildup inside the skull
- Changes in the brain caused by the injury
- Neck and skull injuries that are still healing
- Tension and stress
- Tension headaches due to muscle tension or spasms and stress
- Migraine headaches due to a sensitive area in the brain that triggers a pain signal
- Cervicogenic headaches due to injury to the muscles and soft tissues
- Rebound headaches from medications used to treat headaches
- Head pain—symptoms depend on the cause of the headache
- Nausea or vomiting
- Light and sound sensitivity
- Visual problems such as seeing spots or bright lights
- Pain that occurs at the end of the day
- Pain that starts in the neck, shoulders, and back of the head
- Pain with neck movement
- Difficulty sleeping
- Problems concentrating
- Mood and personality changes
- When your headaches start and end
- What you were doing at the time
- What you tried to relieve the pain
- Any other symptoms you had with your headache
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen
- Over-the-counter medications for migraines
- Prescription pain medication
- Muscle relaxants
- Anti-anxiety medication—rarely
- Wear a helmet during certain activities (such as riding a bike or motorcycle, playing a contact sport, using skates, scooters, or skateboards, riding a horse, skiing or snowboarding).
- Reduce falling hazards at home.
- Always wear a seat belt in motor vehicles.
- Never drink and drive.
- Avoid using sedatives, especially when driving.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org
The National Headache Foundation http://www.headaches.org
Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians http://caep.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Finkel A. Concussion and post-traumatic headache. American Headache Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheadachesociety.org/assets/1/7/Alan%5FFinkel%5F-%5FConcussion%5Fand%5FPTH.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2014.
Headache. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 22, 2013. Accessed January 9, 2014.
Headaches after head injuries—post-traumatic headaches. Brainline.org website. Available at: http://www.brainline.org/content/2008/12/headaches-after-head-injuries-8212-post-traumatic-headaches.html. Accessed January 9, 2014.
Headaches after traumatic brain injury. Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center website. Available at: http://www.msktc.org/tbi/factsheets/Headaches-After-Traumatic-Brain-Injury. Accessed January 9, 2014.
Lane JC, Arciniegas DB. Post-traumatic headache. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2002 Jan;4(1):89-104.
Lenaerts ME, Couch JR. Posttraumatic headache. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2004;6:507-517.
Marcus DA. Disability and chronic post-traumatic headache. Headache: Journal of Head & Face Pain. 2003;43:117-121.
Post-traumatic headache. National Headache Foundation website. Available at: http://www.headaches.org/education/Headache%5FTopic%5FSheets/Post%5FTraumatic%5FHeadache. Accessed January 9, 2014.
Sheedy J, Harvey E, et al. Emergency department assessment of mild traumatic brain injury and the prediction of post-concussive symptoms in a 3-month prospective study. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2009;24(5):333-343.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2014
- Update Date: 02/17/2014