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- Certain medications such as:
- Corticosteroid inhalers
- Medications that treat psychiatric conditions
- Imbalance of healthy microorganisms in the mouth which can be caused by:
- Wearing dentures
- Prolonged illness
- Conditions that cause a dry mouth
- White or red patches on the inside of the cheeks or tongue that may or may not come off when rubbed
- Sore mouth or throat
- Difficulty swallowing
- Differences in taste
- Fissures or cracks in the mouth
- Esophagus—the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach
- Urinary tract
- Whole body—systemic infection causes multiple organ failure and death
Proper Oral Hygiene
- Rinsing your mouth out with salt water
- Gently scraping off patches with a toothbrush
- Brushing your teeth at least twice per day
- Flossing your teeth at least once per day
- Maintain proper oral hygiene.
- If you have a condition that affects your immune system, ask your doctor about taking antifungal medication as a preventive measure.
- Limit your use of mouthwashes and mouth sprays. These can upset the normal balance of yeast and bacteria in your mouth.
- If you use a corticosteroid inhaler, rinse your mouth thoroughly after each use.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
National Foundation for Infectious Disease http://www.nfid.org
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Adults healthy habits. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/adults-under-40. Accessed December 9, 2013.
Dentures. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/d/Dentures. Accessed December 9, 2013.
Greenspan D, Greenspan JS. HIV-related oral disease. Lancet. 1996;358:9029).729-733.
Oral candidiasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/Candidiasis/thrush. Updated May 6, 2013. Accessed December 9, 2013.
Oral candidiasis in children and adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 1, 2013. Accessed December 9, 2013.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of nystatin on the development of oral irritation in patients receiving high-dose intravenous interleukin-2. J Immunother. 2001;24(2):188-192.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 12/2013