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(Bleeding, Postmenopausal; PMB)
|Female Reproductive Organs|
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- Continuous hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
- Thinning and loss of elasticity of the vagina
- Inflammation of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus
- Endometrial hyperplasia, a thickening of endometrium
- Polyps, noncancerous growths on the uterus or cervix
- Infection of the uterus or cervix
- Endometrial cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Fibroid tumors in the uterus or vagina
- Transvaginal ultrasound
- Saline infusion sonohysterography
- Cervical cancer screening
- Endometrial biopsy
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
US Department of Health and Human Services Womens Health http://www.womenshealth.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Committee Opinion on role of transvaginal ultrasonography in evaluation of postmenopausal bleeding. Obstet Gynecol . 2009;113(2):462.
Gale A, Dey P. Postmenopausal bleeding. Menopause Int . 2009;15(4):160-164.
Perimenopausal bleeding and bleeding after menopause. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq162.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20121221T1430328285 . Accessed April 22, 2013.
Postmenopausal bleeding. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated May 17, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2013.
Sonohysterography. American College of Radiology Radiology Info website. Available at: http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=hysterosono . Updated March 7, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2013.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 06/2013
- Update Date: 06/24/2013