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- Being thirsty
- Dry mouth
- muscle weakness or muscle cramps
- decreased urine output
- acute weight loss
- postural dizziness
- restlessness, irritability or agitation
- Serious symptoms:
|Dry mouth is a symptom of hypernatremia.|
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- Ask about your symptoms
- Ask about your fluid intake and your urine output
- Take your medical history
- Do a physical exam
- Blood test—to check the sodium levels, other salt levels, and sugar levels in your blood. Kidney function may also be checked with a blood test.
- Urine test—to check for urine sodium levels and sugar levels
- Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of the correct fluids.
- Work with your doctor to manage any health conditions effectively.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/
Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. Hypernatremia. N Engl J Med . 2000 May 18; 342(20):1493-1499.
Chassagne P, Druesne L, Capet C, Ménard JF, Bercoff E. Clinical presentation of hypernatremia in elderly patients: a case control study. J Am Geriatr Soc . 2006 Aug; 54(8):1225-1230.
Dehydration and hypovolemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ . Updated May 5, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2011.
Hypernatremia. The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec13/ch167/ch167b.html#v1149497 . Updated May 2009. Accessed August 18, 2011.
Sodium. The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook for Patients and Caregivers website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec14/ch171/ch171b.html#v1151342 . Updated August 2008. Accessed August 17, 2011.
Stuart W, Smellie A, Heald A. Hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia: pitfalls in testing. BMJ . 2007 March 3; 334(7591): 473-476.
- Reviewer: Igor Puzanov, MD
- Review Date: 11/2012
- Update Date: 11/26/2012