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(Glycine Encephalopathy; Hepatic Encephalopathy; Hypoxic Encephalopathy; Statin Encephalopathy; Uremic Encephalopathy; Wernicke’s Encephalopathy; Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy; Hypertensive Encephalopathy; Toxic-metabolic Encephalopathy)
- Glycine encephalopathy—caused by a metabolic disorder (how the cells make energy)
- Hepatic encephalopathy —caused by liver disease
- Hypoxic encephalopathy —caused by reduced oxygen to brain
- Static encephalopathy—permanent brain damage
- Uremic encephalopathy—caused by toxins remaining in the body
- Wernicke’s encephalopathy—caused by a thiamine deficiency, usually due to alcoholism
- Hashimoto’s encephalopathy—an autoimmune disorder (when your immune system attacks your body’s cells)
- Hypertensive encephalopathy—caused by very high blood pressure
- Toxic-Metabolic encephalopathy—a general term to describe encephalopathies caused by infections, toxins, or organ failure
- Metabolic dysfunction
- Brain tumor or increased pressure on the skull
- Exposure to toxins
- Poor nutrition
- No oxygen or blood flow to the brain
|Oxygen and Blood Flow to the Brain|
|If the flow of oxygen to the brain is disrupted, it can cause encephalopathy.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Sudden or progressive changes in memory
- Inability to concentrate
- Abnormal drowsiness
- Progressive loss of consciousness
- Subtle personality changes
- Involuntary muscle twitches
- Muscle weakness
- Severe confusion
- Ask about your symptoms
- Take your medical history
- Do a physical exam
- Blood tests
- Spinal tap —removal of a small amount of spinal fluid for testing
- CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the brain
- MRI scan —a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of structures inside the brain
- Electroencephalogram (EEG) —a test that records the brain’s activity by measuring electrical currents through the brain
- Get early treatment for liver problems. If you have any of the above symptoms, call your doctor right away.
- If you have a disease, see your doctor regularly.
- Avoid overdosing on drugs, alcohol, or medicines.
- Avoid being exposed to poisons or toxins.
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov/
Canadian Liver Foundation http://www.liver.ca/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index-eng.php
Encephalopathy. California Pacific Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.cpmc.org/learning/documents/encephalopathy-ws.pdf. Updated May 2004. Accessed May 26, 2011.
Encephalopathy. Congress of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://wiki.cns.org/wiki/index.php/Encephalopath. Updated July 2007. Accessed May 26, 2011.
NINDS encephalopathy page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalopathy/encephalopathy.htm. Updated November 2010. Accessed May 26, 2011.
Smith N. Hepatic encephalopathy. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated September 2010. Accessed May 26, 2011.
- Reviewer: J. Thomas Megerian, MD, PhD, FAAP
- Review Date: 06/2011
- Update Date: 08/18/2011