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Penetrating Brain Injury
(Brain Injury, Penetrating; Penetrating Wound to the Head; Wound to the Head, Penetrating)
|When a penetrating brain injury occurs, one area of the brain may be damaged or a larger region.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Fall (could cause a piece of the skull to break off and penetrate the brain)
- Motor vehicle accident
- Gunshot wound to the head
- Stab wound to the head
- Sports-related injury
- Abuse (being struck on the head with an object)
- Checking heart and lung function
- Checking the persons level of consciousness
- Checking reflexes, strength, and sensation
- Examining the entire body for other injuries
- Severity of the injury
- Areas of the brain that were damaged
- Remove skull fragments that broke off during the injury—A bullet or other object may also need to be removed.
- Remove part of the skull (decompressive craniectomy)—The brain often expands and swells after a severe injury. Removing a part of the skull gives the brain room to expand.
- Make "burr holes" in the scalp and skull to drain clotting blood ( hematoma )
- Place a catheter into the brain to drain cerebrospinal fluid
- Pressure in the brain
- Temperature of the brain and the oxygen levels
- A physical therapist
- An occupational therapist
- A doctor who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation
- A neurologist
- A psychologist
Reduce the risk of gun accidents by:
- Keeping guns unloaded and in a locked cabinet or safe
- Storing ammunition in a separate location that is also locked
Reduce the risk of falls, especially if you are elderly, by:
- Using handrails when walking up and down stairs
- Using grab bars in the bathroom and placing non-slip mats in the bathroom
Reduce the risk of motor vehicle accidents by:
- Not drinking and driving or getting into a vehicle with someone who is under the influence
- Obeying speed limits and other driving laws
- Using seatbelts and placing children in proper child safety seats
- Wearing a helmet when participating in certain sports and when riding on a motorcycle
- Avoiding taking medicines that make you sleepy, especially when driving
American Academy of Neurology http://www.aan.com/
Brain Injury Association of America http://www.biausa.org/
The Brain Injury Association of Canada http://biac-aclc.ca/
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.on.ca/
Barth J, Hillary F. Closed and penetrating head injuries. Saint Joseph’s University website. Available at: http://schatz.sju.edu/neuro/patho/pathophysiology.html . Accessed March 31, 2011.
Cranial gunshot wound. New York Presbyterian Hospital website. Available at: http://nyp.org/health/cranial-gunshot-wounds.html . Accessed March 31, 2011.
Cranial gunshot wounds. University of California, Los Angeles Health System website. Available at: http://neurosurgery.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=134 . Accessed March 31, 2011.
DynaMed Editorial Team. Traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated February 21, 2011. Accessed March 31, 2011.
Glasgow coma scale. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill website. Available at: http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/scales/glasgow.htm . Updated March 31, 2011.
Gossett C. Gunshot wounds: a primer. Temple College website. Available at: http://www.templejc.edu/dept/ems/Pdf/CE%20Articles/GUNSHOT.PDF . Accessed March 31, 2011.
Gunshot wound head trauma. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/en/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Gunshot%20Wound%20Head%20Trauma.aspx . Accessed March 31, 2011.
Neff D. Closed head injury. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated February 16, 2011. Accessed March 31, 2011.
Penetrating injury. Brain and Spinal Cord.org website. Available at: http://www.brainandspinalcord.org/traumatic-brain-injury-types/penetrating-brain-injury/index.html . Accessed March 31, 2011.
Salisbury D, Novack T, Brunner R. TBI inform—traumatic brain injury caused by violence. Traumatic Brain Injury Model System website. Available at: http://main.uab.edu/tbi/show.asp?durki=85704 . Accessed March 31, 2011.
Treating trauma: what you need to know to save a life. Available at: http://webdoc.nyumc.org/nyumc/files/libra/u2/Treating%5FTrauma%5FFall%5F06.pdf . Published 2006. Accessed March 31, 2011.
Understanding TBI. Virginia Commonwealth University website. Available at: http://www.tbi.pmr.vcu.edu/FactSheets/Understanding%5FPart1.pdf . Updated February 8, 2010. Accessed March 31, 2011.
What is brain injury? Brain Injury Association of Utah website. Available at: http://www.biau.org/what/what.html . Accessed March 31, 2011.
- Reviewer: Igor Puzanov, MD
- Review Date: 06/2013
- Update Date: 06/20/2013