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Birth Control for Breastfeeding Women
Contrary to popular legend, breastfeeding women can become pregnant. However, methods of birth control exist that present no problems for either the nursing mom or her baby.
The health benefits that breastfeeding offers newborns are widely known and well-documented by numerous studies, and the convenience and cost savings associated with breastfeeding are significant. While most women who choose to breastfeed do so until their baby gets their first teeth (age 4-6 months), some will continue for much longer, often into the child's second year.
Since most women resume sexual activity several weeks after delivery, the need for effective birth control is an important consideration. The ideal method is one that is completely safe for the newborn infant, free of side effects for the nursing mother, and highly effective in preventing pregnancy. While no current method fits that exact description, there are several good options available to the woman who chooses to breastfeed.
The methods available to breastfeeding women include hormonal contraceptives, barrier methods, the intrauterine device (IUD), and sterilization. If you plan to breastfeed, talk to your healthcare provider before your delivery about which method might be best for you.
Breastfeeding Is Not a Contraceptive
The common misconception that breastfeeding itself prevents pregnancy has consistently been proven wrong. The fact is, if you exclusively breastfeed your baby for the first six months of life, you have a lower probability of becoming pregnant.
Breastfeeding can be a natural way to prevent pregnancy after birth with the Lactation Amenorrhea Method (LAM). While you are nursing, hormones that cause ovulation are not produced. If ovulation does not occur, pregnancy cannot happen. Is this an effective method? Not compared to other birth control methods. While it is true that a nursing mom is less likely to become pregnant than a mother who bottlefeeds, there is no guarantee that pregnancy will not occur if birth control is not used.
The Pill and Mini-pill
The combination birth control pill, commonly referred to as the pill , combines estrogen and progesterone hormones. Progesterone-only birth control pills, also called the mini-pill , only contain progesterone. Hormone contraceptives may work by disrupting the hormone cycle that results in ovulation. Some pills thicken cervical mucus, which makes it more difficult for sperm to meet the egg. Other pills do both.
Mini-pills are a popular choice for many nursing and non-nursing women. Mini-pills are less effective than combination pills. However, it is often recommended over combination pills after delivering your baby because combination pills increase your risk of developing a blood clot. Also, despite insufficient evidence to prove it, many organizations are concerned that combined oral contraception may suppress milk production, so they do not recommend them in breastfeeding women. Most women will not menstruate as long as they remain on the mini-pill—a welcome side effect for some women.
When breastfeeding is discontinued, an easy transition can be made to a combination pill. It is essential that the mini-pill be taken everyday at the same time to be effective. Noncompliance can result in an unintended pregnancy.
This option is an injectable hormonal contraceptive, which is administered every three months. Breastfeeding women should wait until six weeks after delivery before receiving their first injection. The progesterone-like hormone contained in Depo-provera will not harm the nursing infant, is almost 100% effective in preventing pregnancy, and will not reduce your milk supply. Side effects include irregular periods or absence of periods and weight gain.
Barrier methods of birth control include condoms (male and female), the diaphragm, and the cervical cap. All of these methods work by presenting a physical barrier that prevents the sperm from gaining access to the egg. Although side effects are minimal, the pregnancy rate is significantly higher when compared to hormonal methods. None of the barrier methods interfere with breastfeeding in any way.
To improve their efficacy, condoms should be used in conjunction with a spermicidal gel. The chemicals in these gels do not enter the breast milk and therefore are harmless to a nursing infant. Failure to prevent pregnancy is usually due to improper use, failure to use at all, or breakage. Latex condoms may cause an allergic reaction in some women, but will not affect the nursing infant in any way.
It should be noted that using a male latex condom is the only birth control method that protects you from sexually transmitted diseases.
The diaphragm is a round, flexible, rubber, cup-shaped device that is inserted into the vagina before sex. When used with a spermicidal gel, its effectiveness at preventing pregnancy is similar to condoms. Diaphragms come in different sizes, so you need to see your healthcare provider to get a proper fit. You will also be instructed by your healthcare provider as to the proper way to insert and remove the diaphragm. The diaphragm should be left in place for up to 8 hours after intercourse to prevent pregnancy. Removal should be done within 24 hours. With proper care, a diaphragm will last for 2-3 years, but should be refitted if you gain or lose a substantial amount of weight during that time. You can be fitted for a diaphragm at your postpartum check-up—usually 4-6 weeks after delivery.
The less popular cervical cap fits more tightly against the cervix, is more rigid than a diaphragm, and can remain in place for longer periods of time.
Breastfeeding women sometimes develop atrophic vaginitis. This condition, a result of depressed estrogen levels, causes vaginal dryness, irritation, and painful intercourse. Insertion and removal of a diaphragm or cervical cap may be painful. If you suffer from this condition, a different method of contraception may be more acceptable.
The Intrauterine Device (IUD)
The IUD is an effective and safe contraceptive method for breastfeeding women. Current IUDs either contain copper or are impregnated with a progesterone-like hormone. There are no adverse effects from the IUD or any of its chemical components on the nursing infant.
For women who have completed their families, permanent sterilization is another method of birth control. A tubal ligation can be performed shortly after delivery while you are still in the hospital, or, if preferred, at a later date as an outpatient. In either case, no interruption in breastfeeding is necessary. Anesthetics used during the procedure may be present in the breast milk for a short period of time, but not in quantities high enough to cause any harmful effects on a nursing infant. Recovery from this minor surgery is rapid, and breastfeeding can resume as soon as you are awake and alert. After surgery, a wide variety of safe pain medications may be used.
For most new mothers, the thought of becoming pregnant again right away is frightening. Effective birth control is therefore of paramount importance. Breastfeeding mothers are often concerned about medications that might be transferred to their babies in their breast milk. Fortunately, there are several safe methods available for prevention of pregnancy in women who choose to breastfeed their infants.
Association of Reproduction Health Professionals
La Leche League International
The College of Canadian Family Physicians
Womens Health Matters
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World Health Organization. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. 4th ed. 2010. World Health Organization website. Available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241563888%5Feng.pdf. Accessed September 13, 2013.
6/7/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr59e0528.pdf. Published May 28, 2010. Accessed September 13, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/13/2013