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(Nerve Damage of Diabetes)
|Nerves of the Foot|
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- Metabolic problems (eg, high blood glucose)
- Damage to blood vessels
- Autoimmune factors
- Numbness in the extremities
- Tingling in the extremities
- Pain in the extremities
- Wasting of the muscles of the feet or hands
- Nausea or vomiting
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Dizziness or fainting
- Urination problems
- Impotence or vaginal dryness
- Weakness in arms and or legs
- Foot drop
- Weakness of facial muscles resulting in drooping eyelid, drooping mouth, facial droop, difficulty swallowing
- Muscle cramps
- A prolonged feeling of fullness after eating, and/or abdominal pain
- Heat intolerance due to a decreased ability to sweat normally
- Foot exam—to assess sensation in the foot
- Nerve conduction studies —to test nerve activity
- Electromyography —to determine how muscles respond to nerve signals
- Quantitative sensory testing—the use of stimuli (eg, vibration) to check for neuropathy
- Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test—a test to evaluate the nerve supply of sweat glands
- Heart rate tests—to determine how the heart responds to changes
- Ultrasound—to view internal organs
- Biopsy —to remove a sample of nerve or skin tissue for examination
Blood Glucose Management
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org/
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index%5Fe.html
American Academy of Neurology practice parameters for diagnostic testing for distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Neurology . December 3, 2008.
DynaMed Editorial Team. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated November 2, 2010. Accessed November 4, 2010.
Harati Y, Bosch EP. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Bradley WG, ed. Neurology in Clinical Practice . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier; 2008.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diabetic neuropathies: the nerve damage of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/neuropathies/ . Accessed May 24, 2007.
Ogawa K, Sasaki H, Yamasaki H, et al. Peripheral nerve functions may deteriorate parallel to the progression of microangiopathy in diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis . 2006;16:313-321.
Stewart JD. Diabetic neuropathies. In: Gilman S, ed. Medlink website. Available at: http://www.medlink.com . Accessed August 10, 2007.
University of Chicago, Center for Peripheral Neuropathy website. http://millercenter.uchicago.edu/learnaboutpn/typesofpn/diabetes/index.shtml . Accessed January 15, 2010.
Vinik AI. Diabetic neuropathies. Med Clin North Am . 2004;88:947-999.
2/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Dubinsky RM, Miyasaki J. Assessment: efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology . 2010;74(2):173-176.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013