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Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis)
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
- Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
- Dong Quai
- Evening Primrose Oil
- Gamma Oryzanol
- Grass Pollen
- Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs)
- Pueraria mirifica
- Progesterone Cream
- Red Clover
- Royal Jelly
- St. John's wort
- Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin E
- Wild Yam
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Soy and Soy (or Other Source) Isoflavones
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Estriol: A Safer Form of Estrogen?
1 Albertazzi P, Pansini F, Bonaccorsi G, et al. The effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flushes. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91:6-11.
2 Brzezinski A, Adlercreutz H, Shaoul R, et al. Short-term effects of phytoestrogen-rich diet on postmenopausal women. Menopause. 1997;4:89-94.
3 Scambia G, Mango D, Signorile PG, et al. Clinical effects of a standardized soy extract in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Menopause. 2000;7:105-111.
4 Washburn S, Burke GL, Morgan T, et al. Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women. Menopause. 1999;6:7-13.
5 St. Germain A, Peterson CT, Robinson JG, et al. Isoflavone-rich or isoflavone-poor soy protein does not reduce menopausal symptoms during 24 weeks of treatment. Menopause. 2001;8:17-26.
6 Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, et al. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(suppl):1375S-1379S.
7 Alekel DL, St. Germain A, Peterson CT, et al. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:844-852.
8 Harrison E, Adjei A, Ameho C, et al. The effect of soybean protein on bone loss in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1998;44:257-268.
9 Fanti O, Faugere MC, Gang Z, et al. Systematic administration of genistein partially prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats in a nonestrogen-like mechanism [abstract]. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(suppl):1517S-1518S.
10 Arjmandi BH, Alekel L, Hollis BW, et al. Dietary soybean protein prevents bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. J Nutr. 1996;126:161-167.
11 Arjmandi BH, Birnbaum R, Goyal NV, et al. Bone-sparing effect of soy protein in ovarian hormone-deficient rats is related to its isoflavone content. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(suppl):1364S- 1368S.
12 Fanti P, Monier-Faugere MC, Geng Z, et al. The phytoestrogen genistein reduces bone loss in short-term ovariectomized rats. Osteoporos Int. 1998;8:274-281.
13 Anderson JJ, Ambrose WW, Garner SC. Biphasic effects of genistein on bone tissue in the ovariectomized, lactating rat model. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217:345-350.
14 Malochet S, Picherit C, Horcajada-Molteni MN, et al. Do endurance training and soy isoflavones exhibit additive effects on ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in the rat? [abstract]. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14(suppl 1):S536.
15 Gallagher JC, Rafferty K, Haynatzka V, et al. The effect of soy protein on bone metabolism [abstract]. J Nutr. 2000;130:666S-669S.
19 Stoll W. A phythotherapeutic agent affects atrophic vaginal epithelium. Double-blind study: Cimicifuga vs. an estrogen preparation [translated from German]. Therapeutikon. 1987;1:23-31.
20 Liske E, Hanggi W, Henneicke-Von Zepelin HH, et al. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black chosh ( Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma ): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002;11:163-174.
21 Einer-Jensen N, Zhao J, Andersen KP, et al. Cimicifuga and melbrosia lack oestrogenic effects in mice and rats. Maturitas. 1996;25:149-153.
22 Jacobson JS, Troxel AB, Evans J, et al. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:2739-2745.
23 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998: 246.
24 Warnecke G. Influencing menopausal symptoms with a phytotherapeutic agent [in German]. Med Welt. 1985;36:871-874.
25 Stolze H. An alternative to treat menopausal complaints [translated from German]. Gyne. 1982;1:14-16.
26 Lehmann-Willenbrock VE, Riedel H-H. Clinical and endocrinologic examinations about therapy of climacteric symptoms following hysterectomy with remaining ovaries [in German; English abstract]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1988;110:611-618.
27 Liske E, Hanggi W, Henneicke-Von Zepelin HH, et al. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh ( Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma ): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002;11:163-174.
28 MacLennan A, Lester S, Moore V. Oral estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo for hot flushes: a systematic review. Climacteric. 2001;4:58-74.
29 Einer-Jensen N, Zhao J, Andersen KP, et al. Cimicifuga and Melbrosia lack oestrogenic effects in mice and rats. Maturitas. 1996;25:149-153.
30 Seidlova-Wuttke D, Wuttke W. Selective estrogen receptor modulator activity of Cimicifuga racemosa extract: clinical data [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):11.
31 Seidlova-Wuttke D, Jarry H, Heiden I, et al. Effects of Cimicifuga racemosa on estrogen-dependent tissues [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):11-12.
32 Wuttke W, Jarry H, Heiden I, et al. Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract.
32 BNO 1055: pharmacology and mechanisms of action [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):12.
39 Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anasti JN. Transdermal progesterone cream for vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal bone loss. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94:225-228.
40 Adlercreutz H, Mazur W. Phyto-estrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med. 1997;29:95-120.
41 Grube B, Walper A, Wheatley D. St. John's Wort extract: efficacy for menopausal symptoms of psychological origin. Adv Ther. 1999;16:177-186.
42 Barton DL, Loprinzi CL, Quella SK, et al. Prospective evaluation of vitamin E for hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:495-500.
43 Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric. 1999;2:85-92.
44 Knight DC, Howes JB, Eden JA. The effect of Promensil™, an isoflavone extract, on menopausal symptoms. Climacteric. 1999;2:79-84.
45 Kurzer MS, Xu X. Dietary phytoestrogens. Annu Rev Nutr. 1997;17:353-381.
46 Shemesh M, Lindrer HR, Ayalon N. Affinity of rabbit uterine oestradiol receptor for phyto-oestrogens and its use in a competitive protein-binding radioassay for plasma coumestrol. J Reprod Fertil. 1972;29:1-9.
47 De Leo V, Lanzetta D, Cazzavacca R, et al. Treatment of neurovegetative menopausal symptoms with a phytotherapeutic agent [in Italian; English abstract]. Minerva Ginecol. 1998;50:207-211.
48 Hirata JD, Swiersz LM, Zell B, et al. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 1997;68:981-986.
49 Takahashi K, Manabe A, Okada M, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral estriol for managing postmenopausal symptoms. Maturitas. 2000;34:169-177.
50 Minaguchi H, Uemura T, Shirasu K, et al. Effect of estriol on bone loss in postmenopausal Japanese women: a multicenter prospective open study. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1996;22:259-265.
51 Itoi H, Minakami H, Sato I. Comparison of the long-term effects of oral estriol with the effects of conjugated estrogen, 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium lactate on vertebral bone loss in early menopausal women. Maturitas. 1997;28:11-17.
52 Hayashi T, Ito I, Kano H, et al. Estriol (E3) replacement improves endothelial function and bone mineral density in very elderly women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55:B183-B190.
53 Dugal R, Hesla K, Sordal T, et al. Comparison of usefulness of estradiol vaginal tablets and estriol vagitories for treatment of vaginal atrophy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000;79:293-297.
54 Raz R, Stamm WE. A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:753-756.
55 van der Linden MC, Gerretsen G, Brandhorst MS, et al. The effect of estriol on the cytology of urethra and vagina in postmenopausal women with genito-urinary symptoms. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1993;51:29-33.
56 Holland EF, Leather AT, Studd JW. Increase in bone mass of older postmenopausal women with low mineral bone density after one year of percutaneous oestradiol implants. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;102:238-242.
57 Nozaki M, Hashimoto K, Inoue Y, et al. Usefulness of estriol for the treatment of bone loss in postmenopausal women [in Japanese; English abstract]. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1996;48:83-88.
58 Minaguchi H, Uemura T, Shirasu K, et al. Effect of estriol on bone loss in postmenopausal Japanese women: a multicenter prospective open study. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1996;22:259-265.
59 Takahashi K, Manabe A, Okada M, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral estriol for managing postmenopausal symptoms. Maturitas. 2000;34:169-177.
60 Granberg S, Ylostalo P, Wikland M, et al. Endometrial sonographic and histologic findings in women with and without hormonal replacement therapy suffering from postmenopausal bleeding. Maturitas. 1997;27:35-40.
61 Weiderpass E, Baron JA, Adami HO, et al. Low-potency oestrogen and risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study. Lancet. 1999;353:1824-1828.
62 Montoneri C, Zarbo G, Garofalo A, et al. Effects of estriol administration on human postmenopausal endometrium. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1987;14:178-181.
63 Takahashi K, Manabe A, Okada M, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral estriol for managing postmenopausal symptoms. Maturitas. 2000;34:169-177.
64 Lippman M, Monaco ME, Bolan G. Effects of estrone, estradiol and estriol on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. Cancer Res. 1977;37:1901-1907.
65 Komesaroff PA, Black CV, Cable V, et al. Effects of wild yam extract on menopausal symptoms, lipids and sex hormones in healthy menopausal women. Climacteric. 2001;4:144-150.
66 Wuttke W. Paper presented at: 84th Annual Meeting of The Endocrine Society; June 21, 2002. Abstracts P3-333, P3-317.
67 Kotsopoulos D, Dalais FS, Liang YL, et al. The effects of soy protein containing phytoestrogens on menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2000;3:161-167.
68 van de Weijer P, Barentsen R. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas. 2002;42:187.
69 Murkies AL, Lombard C, Strauss BJ, et al. Dietary flour supplementation decreases post-menopausal hot flashes: effect of soy and wheat. Maturitas. 1995;21:189-195.
70 Han KK, Soares JM, Haidar MA et al. Benefits of soy isoflavone therapeutic regimen on menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:389-394.
71 Faure ED, Chantre P, Mares P. Effects of a standardized soy extract on hot flushes: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Menopause. 2002;9:329-334.
72 Upmalis DH, Lobo R, Bradley L, et al. Vasomotor symptom relief by soy isoflavone extract tablets in postmenopausal women: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Menopause. 2000;7:236-242.
73 Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr. 2002;132:547S-551S.
74 Lees CJ, Ginn TA. Soy protein isolate diet does not prevent increased cortical bone turnover in ovariectomized macaques. Calcif Tissue Int. 1998;62:557-558.
75 Jayo MJ. Dietary soy isoflavones and bone loss: a study in ovariectomized monkeys [abstract]. J Bone Miner Res. 1996;11(suppl 1):S228.
76 Cicero AF, Gaddi A. Rice bran oil and gamma-oryzanol in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemias and other conditions. Phytother Res. 2001;15:277-289.
77 Chenoy R, Hussain S, Tayob Y, et al. Effect of oral gamolenic acid from evening primrose oil on menopausal flushing. BMJ. 1994;308:501-503.
78 Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, et al. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1999;19:89-99.
79 Penotti M, Fabio E, Modena AB, et al. Effect of soy-derived isoflavones on hot flushes, endometrial thickness, and the pulsatility index of the uterine and cerebral arteries. Fertil Steril. 2003;79:1112-1117.
80 Burke GL, Legault C, Anthony M, et al. Soy protein and isoflavone effects on vasomotor symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women: the Soy Estrogen Alternative Study. Menopause. 2003;10:147-153.
81 Wuttke W, Seidlova-Wuttke D, Gorkow C. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas. 2003;44(suppl 1):S67-S77.
82 Liske E. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga racemosa for gynecologic disorders. AdvTher. 1998;15:45-53.
83 Nesselhut T, Schellhase C, Dietrich R, et al. Investigation into the growth-inhibitive efficacy of phytopharmacopia with estrogen-like influences on mammary gland carcinoma cells [translated from German]. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1993;254:817-818.
84 Freudenstein J, Dasenbrock C, Nisslein T. Lack of promotion of estrogen dependent mammary gland tumors in vivo by an isopropanolic black cohosh extract [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):13.
85 Nesselhut T, Liske E. Pharmacological measures in postmenopausal women with an isopropanolic aqueous extract of Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma.Menopause. 1999;6:1072-3714.
86 Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217:369-378.
87 Jarry H, Harnischfeger G. Endocrine effects of constituents of Cimicifuga racemosa 1. The effect on serum levels of pituitary hormones in ovariectomized rats. Planta Med. 1985;1:46-49.
88 Wren BG, Champion SM, Willetts K, et al. Transdermal progesterone and its effect on vasomotor symptoms, blood lipid levels, bone metabolic markers, moods, and quality of life for postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2003;10:13-18.
89 Kraft K, Coulon S. Effect of a standardized acupuncture treatment on complaints, blood pressure and serum lipids of hypertensive, postmenopausal women: A randomized, controlled clinical study. Forsch Komplementarmed. 1999;6:74-79.
90 Chen LC, Tsao YT, Yen KY, et al. A pilot study comparing the clinical effects of Jia-Wey Shiau-Yau San, a traditional Chinese herbal prescription, and a continuous combined hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with climacteric symptoms. Maturitas. 2003;44:55-62.
91 Crisafulli A, Marini H, Bitto A, et al. Effects of genistein on hot flushes in early postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind EPT- and placebo-controlled study. Menopause. 2004;11:400-404.
92 Chiechi LM, Putignano G, Guerra V, et al. The effect of a soy rich diet on the vaginal epithelium in postmenopause: a randomized double blind trial. Maturitas. 2003;45:241-246.
93 Messina M, Hughes C. Efficacy of soyfoods and soybean isoflavone supplements for alleviating menopausal symptoms is positively related to initial hot flush frequency. J Med Food. 2003;6:1-11.
94 Secreto G, Chiechi LM, Amadori A, et al. Soy isoflavones and melatonin for the relief of climacteric symptoms: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. Maturitas. 2004;47:11-20.
95 Tice JA, Ettinger B, Ensrud K, et al. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: The Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study. JAMA. 2003;290:207-214.
96 Lydeking-Olsen E, Beck-Jensen JE, Setchell KD, et al. Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of bone loss. A 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print]
97 Dalais FS, Ebeling PR, Kotsopoulos D, et al. The effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on lipids and indices of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;58:704-709.
98 Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2004;292:65-74.
99 Yoles I, Yogev Y, Frenkel Y, et al. Tofupill/Femarelle (DT56a): a new phyto-selective estrogen receptor modulator-like substance for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss. Menopause. 2003;10:522-525.
100 Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, et al. Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:4740-4747.
101 Cotter A, Cashman KD. Genistein appears to prevent early postmenopausal bone loss as effectively as hormone replacement therapy. Nutr Rev. 2003;61:346-351.
102 Atkinson C, Compston JE, Day NE, et al. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:326-333.
103 Burdette JE, Liu J, Chen SN, et al. Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:5661-5670.
104 Genazzani AD, Stomati M, Bernardi F, et al. Long-term low-dose dehydroepiandrosterone oral supplementation in early and late postmenopausal women modulates endocrine parameters and synthesis of neuroactive steroids. Fertil Steril. 2003;80:1495-501.
105 Somjen D, Knoll E, Vaya J, et al. Estrogen-like activity of licorice root constituents: glabridin and glabrene, in vascular tissues in vitro and in vivo. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;91:147-155.
106 Cohen SM, Rousseau ME, Carey BL. Can acupuncture ease the symptoms of menopause? Holist Nurs Pract. 2003;17:295-299.
107 Macgregor CA, Canney PA, Patterson G, et al. A randomised double-blind controlled trial of oral soy supplements versus placebo for treatment of menopausal symptoms in patients with early breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:708-714.
108 Kok L, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Grobbee DE, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on quality of life in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2005;12:56-62.
109 Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric. 1999;2:85-92.
110 Knight DC, Howes JB, Eden JA. The effect of Promensil™, an isoflavone extract, on menopausal symptoms. Climacteric. 1999;2:79-84.
111 Osmers R, Friede M, Liske E, et al. Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:1074-1083.
112 Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE, et al. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng ): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci. 2005;7:325-333.
113 Manonai J, Songchitsomboon S, Chanda K, et al. The effect of a soy-rich diet on urogenital atrophy: A randomized, cross-over trial. Maturitas. 2005 Nov 15. [Epub ahead of print].
114 Hidalgo LA, Chedraui PA, Morocho N, et al. The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005;21:257-264.
115 Campagnoli C, Abba C, Ambroggio S, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might reduce hot flushes: an indication from two controlled trials on soy isoflavones alone and with a PUFA supplement. Maturitas. 2005;51:127-134.
116 Wuttke W, Gorkow C, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause. 2006;13:185-196.
117 Uebelhack R, Blohmer JU, Graubaum HJ, et al. Black cohosh and St. John's wort for climacteric complaints: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:247-255.
118 Newton K, Reed S, Grothaus L, et al. The herbal alternatives for menopause (HALT) study: background and study design. Maturitas. 2005;16:134-146.
119 Frei-Kleiner S, Schaffner W, Rahlfs VW, et al. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas. 2005;51:397-404.
120 Verhoeven MO, van der Mooren MJ, van de Weijer PH, et al. Effect of a combination of isoflavones and Actaea racemosa Linnaeus on climacteric symptoms in healthy symptomatic perimenopausal women: a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Menopause. 2005;12:412-420.
121 Nappi RE, Malavasi B, Brundu B, et al. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: a randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005;20:30-35.
122 Winther K, Rein E, Hedman C, et al. Femal, a herbal remedy made from pollen extracts, reduces hot flushes and improves quality of life in menopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Climacteric. 2005;8:162-170.
123 Pockaj BA, Gallagher JG, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of Black Cohosh in the Management of Hot Flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2836-2841.
124 Heger M, Ventskovskiy BM, Borzenko I, et al. Efficacy and safety of a special extract of Rheum rhaponticum (ERr 731) in perimenopausal women with climacteric complaints: a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause. 2006 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print]
125 Wuttke W, Raus K, Gorkow C. Efficacy and tolerability of the black cohosh (actaea racemosa) ethanolic extract BNO 1055 on climacteric complaints: A double-blind, placebo- and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Maturitas. 2006 Aug 21. [Epub ahead of print]
126 Huang MI, Nir Y, Chen B, et al. A randomized controlled pilot study of acupuncture for postmenopausal hot flashes: effect on nocturnal hot flashes and sleep quality. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:700-710.
127 Vincent A, Barton DL, Mandrekar JN, et al. Acupuncture for hot flashes: a randomized, sham-controlled clinical study. Menopause 2006 Oct 2. [Epub ahead of print]
128 Sandberg M, Wijma K, Wyon Y, et al. Effects of electro-acupuncture on psychological distress in postmenopausal women. Complement Ther Med. 2002;10:161-169.
129 Wilbur J, Miller AM, McDevitt J, et al. Menopausal status, moderate-intensity walking, and symptoms in midlife women. Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2005;19:163-180.
130 Kirby RS. Menopacenutrient therapy: an alternative approach to pharmaceutical treatments for menopause. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2006;51:125-129.
131 Sammartino A, Tommaselli GA, Gargano V, et al. Short-term effects of a combination of isoflavones, lignans, and cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric-related symptoms in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:646-650.
132 Nir Y, Huang MI, Schnyer R, et al. Acupuncture for postmenopausal hot flashes. Maturitas. 2006 Dec 18. [Epub ahead of print].
133 D'Anna R, Cannata ML, Atteritano M, et al. Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on hot flushes, endometrium, and vaginal epithelium in postmenopausal women: a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Menopause. 2007 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print]
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135 Zaborowska E, Brynhildsen J, Damberg S, et al. Effects of acupuncture, applied relaxation, estrogens, and placebo on hot flushes in postmenopausal women: an analysis of two prospective, parallel, randomized studies. Climacteric. 2007;10:38-45.
136 Manonai J, Chittacharoen A, Theppisai U, et al. Effect of Pueraria mirifica on vaginal health. Menopause. 2007 Mar 30. [Epub ahead of print]
137 Rotem C, Kaplan B. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats, and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:117-122.
138 Chung DJ, Kim HY, Park KH, et al. Black cohosh and St. John's wort (GYNO-Plus) for climacteric symptoms. Yonsei Med J. 2007;48:289-294.
139 Elavsky S, McAuley E. Physical activity and mental health outcomes during menopause: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Behav Med. 2007;33:132-142.
140 Wilbur J, Miller AM, McDevitt J, et al. Menopausal status, moderate-intensity walking, and symptoms in midlife women. Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2005;19:163-180.
141 Oktem M, Eroglu D, Karahan HB, et al. Black cohosh and fluoxetine in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms: a prospective, randomized trial. Adv Ther. 2007;24:448-461.
142 Bai W, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, Wang S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. 2007 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
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144 Woo J, Lau E, Ho SC, et al. Comparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopause. Menopause. 2003;10:352-361.
145 Ziaei S, Kazemnejad A, Zareai M. The effect of vitamin E on hot flashes in menopausal women. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2007 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print]
146 Khaodhiar L, Ricciotti HA, Li L, et al. Daidzein-rich isoflavone aglycones are potentially effective in reducing hot flashes in menopausal women. Menopause. 2007 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]
147 Pruthi S, Thompson SL, Novotny PJ, et al. Pilot evaluation of flaxseed for the management of hot flashes. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007;5:106-112.
148 Lemay A, Dodin S, Kadri N, et al. Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:495-504.
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- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 12/16/2013