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Risk Factors for Pneumonia
- Students in dormitories
- Patients living in institutions
- Military personnel in barracks
- People living in nursing homes
- Conditions that interfere with your gag reflex:
- Conditions that weaken your immune system:
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Kidney disease
- Sleep apnea
- Congestive heart failure
- Poor nutrition
- Generally debilitated state
- Liver disease
- Ventilator use
- Weakened immune systems
- Gastroesophageal reflux disorder
- Lung or heart defects
- Nervous system defects that affect the muscles of the mouth and/or throat
- Young children
- Older adults
Flanders SA, Collard HR, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia: state of the science. Am J Infect Control . 2006;34:84-93.
Pneumonia symptoms diagnosis and treatment. American Lung Association website. Available at: http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/pneumonia/symptoms-diagnosis-and.html . Accessed October 3, 2012.
Pneumonia. National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu . Updated March 1, 2011. Accessed October 3, 2012.
Pneumonia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated August 27, 2012. Accessed October 3, 2012.
Pneumonia in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated August 27, 2012. Accessed October 3, 2012.
3/10/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Su VY, Liu CJ, et al. Sleep apnea and risk of pneumonia: a natoinwide population-based study. CMAJ. 2014 Mar 3.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 10/2012
- Update Date: 03/10/2014