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What Is a Low-Protein Diet?
A low-protein diet limits the amount of protein that you can eat each day.
Why Should I Follow a Low-Protein Diet?
This diet may be recommended if you have liver or kidney disease. The liver helps in protein digestion, and the kidneys are responsible for removing the waste products of protein digestion. If your liver or kidneys are not fully functioning, they will have to work extra hard to handle the protein that you eat. If you eat more protein than your liver or kidneys can handle, waste products will build up in your bloodstream, causing fatigue and a decreased appetite.
If you have chronic kidney failure, adhering to a low-protein diet can delay your need for dialysis for up to a year. With kidney failure, you may also need to make other dietary changes, such as limiting the amount of salt, potassium, phosphorous, and fluid. Work with a registered dietitian to come up with an eating plan that meets your nutritional and medical needs.
Low-Protein Diet Basics
Dietary protein comes from 2 sources: animals and plants. Animal products are higher in protein and provide us with complete proteins. Complete proteins contain all of the essential amino acids that our bodies need to live and that we have to get from the food we eat. Plant products are lower in protein and provide us with incomplete proteins. Both types of protein should be a part of a healthful, low-protein diet.
Eating Guide for a Low-Protein Diet
The following chart categorizes food by group and lists the amount of protein per serving. Your doctor or dietitian will let you know how many grams of protein you can consume each day. On this diet, it is important that you work with a dietitian to make sure that you are within the recommended protein range and meeting all of your nutrient needs.
Meat and Meat Substitutes
1 serving = 7 grams protein
|Beef, poultry, fish, lamb, veal||1 ounce|
|Cheese||1 ounce or one-fourth of a cup shredded|
|Peanut butter||2 tablespoons|
|Dried peas or beans (cooked)||one-half of a cup|
1 serving = 4 grams protein
|Milk, cream, and yogurt||one-half of a cup|
|Ice cream||three-quarters of a cup|
1 serving = 3 grams protein
|Bagel (varies), 4-ounce||one-fourth of a bagel (1-ounce)|
|Bread (white, pumpernickel, whole wheat, rye)||1 slice|
|Broth-based soup||1 cup|
|Cooked beans, peas, or corn||one-half of a cup|
|Cooked cereal||one-half of a cup|
|English muffin, hot dog bun, or hamburger bun||one-half|
|Pasta||one-half of a cup|
|Rice||one-third of a cup|
|Potato||1 small or one-half of a cup mashed|
|Sweet potato or yam||one-half of a cup|
|Unsweetened, dry cereal||three-quarters of a cup|
1 serving = 2 grams protein
|Cooked vegetables||one-half of a cup|
|Raw vegetables||1 cup|
|Tomato or vegetable juice||one-half of a cup|
1 serving = 0.5 grams protein
|Canned fruit||one-half of a cup|
|Dried fruit||one-fourth of a cup|
|Fresh fruit||1 small or 1 cup (like cut up or berries)|
|Fresh juice||one-half of a cup|
Fats and Sugars
Pure fats and sugars contain no protein. But, foods made mostly of fat or sugar, such as cake, cookies, ice cream, snack chips, and fried foods tend to be high in calories and low in nutrition. There are some fats that are healthy in moderation, including olive oil, canola oil, avocados, and nuts. Ask your dietitian about how foods from this group can fit into your diet.
Here are some suggestions to help you with eating a low-protein diet:
- When planning a meal or filling your plate with food, focus on the vegetables and grains, and then supplement with a small serving of meat, if desired.
- When preparing meals at home, be sure to weigh (with a kitchen scale) and measure your foods to make sure you are getting the correct portion size.
- Ask your dietitian about special low-protein products, including low-protein baking mixes, breads, cookies, and crackers.
Eat Right—Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
National Kidney Foundation
Dietitians of Canada
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Enjoy your own recipes using less protein. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/enjoy. Accessed November 17, 2014.
Nutrition care manual. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics website. Available at: https://www.nutritioncaremanual.org. Accessed November 17, 2014.
Powers M. American Dietetic Association Guide to Eating Right When You Have Diabetes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2003.
- Reviewer: Dianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN
- Review Date: 12/2015
- Update Date: 11/17/2014