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Risk Factors for Kidney Stones
- Excess dietary sodium and oxalate. Oxalate can be found in green, leafy vegetables, chocolate, nuts, or tea.
- Low fluid intake, especially during warmer weather, which can lead to dehydration
- Overactive parathyroid gland
- Chronic bowel disorders such as Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis
- Some diuretics
- Calcium-based antacids
- History of urinary infection
- More common in women
- Excess dietary red meat or poultry
Kidney stones and ureteral stones. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=148. Accessed April 16, 2013.
Kidney stones in adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults. Updated January 28, 2013. Accessed April 16, 2013.
Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 22, 2013 . Accessed April 16, 2013.
Pietrow PK, Karellas ME. Medical management of common urinary calculi. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74(1):86-94.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 03/2014
- Update Date: 04/29/2014