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Surgical and Other Procedures for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
- Traditional CABG —A heart-lung machine is used to circulate blood and oxygen throughout the body while the surgeon works on the heart. During surgery, the heart is stopped and is restarted when the surgeon is done.
- Off-pump CABG —No heart-lung machine is needed. The surgeon works on the heart while it is still beating.
- Minimally invasive direct CABG —Small incisions are made along the left side of the chest and between the ribs to access front-facing blood vessels. It is a fairly new off-pump procedure that may not be an option for everyone or widely available.
- Coronary angioplasty —Sometimes called a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A guided catheter is inserted into the artery in your groin. Once the blockage is reached, a balloon is quickly inflated and deflated. This opens the artery and restores blood flow. The balloon and catheter are then removed.
- Stent —During an angioplasty, a mesh stent may be placed in the artery to keep it open. The stent may be coated with a medication to reduce the chances of the artery renarrowing.
- Laser angioplasty —The plaque is vaporized by a laser beam at the end of the guided catheter, which opens the artery.
- Atherectomy —Once the blockage is reached, a shaver on the tip of the guided catheter is used to slice the plaque away.
- Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP)—Noninvasive procedure that uses inflatable bags around the legs. These bags inflate and deflate in rhythm with the heartbeat to help improve blood flow and decrease angina symptoms. This treatment may be able to decrease the symptoms of angina and improve oxygen flow.
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Cardiac procedures and surgeries. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/PreventionTreatmentofHeartAttack/Cardiac-Procedures-and-Surgeries%5FUCM%5F303939%5FArticle.jsp. Updated March 22, 2013. Accessed January 28, 2014.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 2, 2013. Accessed January 28, 2014.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 7, 2014. Accessed January 28, 2014.
Revascularization for coronary artery disease (CAD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 7, 2013. Accessed January 28, 2014.
What is coronary artery bypass grafting? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cabg. Updated February 23, 2012. Accessed January 28, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 01/28/2014