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- Drink or ingest substances containing high levels of aluminum
- Breath aluminum dust in workplace air
- Live where aluminum is mined or processed
- Live near certain hazardous waste sites
- Live where aluminum is naturally high
- Diminished kidney function
- Drinking or ingesting substances that are high in aluminum
- Living or working in an environment that contains high levels of aluminum
- Receiving long-term intravenous nutrition
- Live in dusty environments
- Muscle weakness
- Bone pain, deformities, and fractures
- Speech problems
- Slow growth—in children
- Lung problems
- Nervous system problems causing difficulty with voluntary and involuntary actions
- Bone diseases
- Brain diseases and disorders
- Impaired iron absorption
|Red Blood Cells|
|These vital cells transport oxygen through the body. Symptoms of aluminum toxicity such as anemia and impaired iron absorption decrease the number of red blood cells.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Bone biopsy
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Stool tests
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov
Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov
Guide to Less Toxic Products Environmental Health Association of Nova Scotia http://www.lesstoxicguide.ca
Poison Control Centers for Canada Association of the Chemical Profession of Ontario http://www.acpo.on.ca
Andia JB. Aluminum toxicity: its relationship with bone and iron metabolism. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996; 11 Suppl 3:69-73.
Bia MJ, Cooper K, et al. Aluminum induced anemia: pathogenesis and treatment in patients on chronic dialysis. Kidney Int. 1989 Nov;36(5):852-8.
Delmez J, Weerts C, et al. Accelerated removal of deferoxamine mesylate-chelated aluminum by charcoal hyperfusion in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Disease. 1989 Apr;13(4):308-11.
D’Haese PC, Couttenye MM, et al. Use of the low-dose desferrioxamine test to diagnose and differentiate between patients with aluminum-related bone disease, increased risk for aluminum toxicity, or aluminium overload. Nephrol dial Transplant . 1995;10:1874-84.
Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Internal Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2008.
Kawahara M. Effects of aluminum on the nervous system and its possible link with neurodegenerative diseases. J Alzheimers Dis . 2005;8:171-82.
Krewski D, Yokei RA, Nieboer E et al: Human health risk assessment for aluminium, aluminium oxide, and aluminium hydroxide. J Toxicol Environ Health b Crit Rev . 2007:10 supl 1: 1-269
Malluche HH. Aluminum and bone disease in chronic renal failure. Nephrol dial Transplant . 2002; 17:21-24.
Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine .7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc.; 2009.
Molloy DW, Standish TI, Nieboer E et al: Effects of acute exposure to aluminum on cognition in humans. J Toxicol Environ Health . A 2007: 70:2011-9
Toxic substances portal: Aluminum. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=190&tid=34#bookmark08. Updated October 27, 2011. Accessed April 2, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 02/2014
- Update Date: 02/07/2014