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Tips for Older Adults: Ways to Avoid Injuries During Sports and Exercise
Your Aging Body
Our bodies change with age. It may not be a pleasant thought, but at least most changes are gradual. One thing that does not change as the body ages is the need for physical activity. Physical activity promotes physical and mental well-being. Before you head out the door, learn why your risk for injury is higher as you get older.
As we get older, tendons and ligaments lose some of their elasticity. This can lead to reduced range of motion in the joints, making these areas more prone to injuries. And unfortunately, older bodies tend to take a bit longer to recover from injuries.
Aging can also mean a loss in muscle. This loss usually begins in the mid-40s (earlier if you are inactive) and may decline as much as 10% after the age of 50. This muscle loss can certainly mean a decline in physical abilities and make it easier to gain weight. Fortunately, regular exercise can significantly slow this muscle loss. If you do not use your muscles regularly, the tissues become weaker and less compliant.
Although older adults accumulate a variety of injuries, the most common injuries involve sprains (stretching or tearing of a ligament) and strains (stretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon) around the shoulders, knees, and ankles. These injuries may only cause minor soreness or stiffness. People often do not recognize soreness as a problem, and they work through the pain. This may lead to more soreness and injury. Other common injuries include tennis elbow, Achilles tendinopathy, and shin splints.
A few safety steps will help you keep safe while staying strong.
How to Avoid Injury
If you want to live a longer, more productive life, you have to exercise most days of the week. You may need to exercise at a lower pace or for shorter periods of time than you did when you were younger. Remember that you may not be able to play hoops to the level of your 30-year-old colleagues, or play as many back-to-back tennis matches as you once could.
Make modifications to your routine and play smart. Before you get started, follow these tips so you can avoid injury:
- Get a basic medical screening. Talk with your doctor. Find out if you have any conditions that would put you in jeopardy while exercising. If you have a chronic condition that is limiting, you may be able to work out an activity plan within the scope of your ability.
- Find a balanced exercise program. Do not rely on one sport to keep you in shape. Follow a program that includes cardiovascular activity, strength training, and stretching.
- Warm up before and cool down after physical activity. Adding a few minutes to your warm up can make your workouts smoother. Cold muscles are more prone to injury, which is why you are asking for trouble if you skip the warm-up. Try some light jogging or walking.
- Keep it regular. You will not make gains in fitness by cramming your activity into the weekend. Aim for 30 minutes of physical activity every day.
- Take lessons. Hire a trained professional to help you attain and maintain proper form in your sport, even if it is weight training.
- Get the right equipment for your sport. You want to make sure the gear you use for your activity is in good shape and used properly. Think about the condition of your shoes, or if you will need a helmet.
- Follow the 10% rule. When you are ready to increase your activity level, do so in 10% increments. In other words, increase activity small increments per week. This rule also applies to working with weights.
- Be cautious about adding new exercises. Whether you are a seasoned fitness enthusiast or new to exercise, avoid taking on too many activities at once. Add activities gradually.
- Listen to your body. Pay attention to the messages your body is sending you. If your knees hurt after you ski, find an easier ski run or maybe think about a different activity that does not hurt your knees.
- Be careful about jumping right back into your routine. Gradually return to your workout routine if you had to take a brief time out because of illness or injury.
- Seek professional help if you injure yourself. Consult your doctor for any injury that is not relieved with home care. Some injuries require medical treatment and will not go away on their own.
Older age no longer means less activity. In fact, it means quite the opposite. The more active you are the better your body will age. Play smart, listen to your body, and you will find more abilities than limits.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Sports Med—American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
Public Heath of Canada Healthy Living
Effects of aging. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Ortho Info website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00191. Updated September 2009. Accessed December 10, 2014.
Making physical activity a part of an older adult's life. Center for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/getactive/olderadults.html. November 9, 2011. Accessed December 10, 2014.
Physical activity guidelines for Americans. United States Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://www.health.gov/PAGuidelines. Updated October 16, 2008. Accessed December 10, 2014.
Sports injury prevention for baby boomers. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Ortho Info website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00178. Updated August 2011. Accessed December 10, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014
- Update Date: 12/10/2014