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Become a Link in the Chain of Cardiac Survival
Learning the Chain of Survival
- Recognize that there is an emergency. If the person is unresponsive, emergency care should be started.
- Call 911 or have someone else call.
- If there is an AED available, get it (or have someone else get it) and follow the steps on the machine.
- Start CPR by giving chest compressions. Push in the chest at least two inches at a fast rate of at least 100 compressions per minute.
- If you are trained in CPR, after 30 compressions, open the person's airway and give two rescue breaths. Then, continue with the chest compressions. If you feel more comfortable, you can give the compressions without the breaths until the ambulance arrives.
Defibrillators: The Difference Between Life and Death
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/
Citizen CPR Foundation, Inc. http://www.citizencpr.org/
Learn CPR—CPR Information and Training Resources http://depts.washington.edu/learncpr/
Canadian Association of Family Physicians http://www.cfpc.ca/
Canadian Public Health Health Unit http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/index-eng.php
American Heart Association. 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science: Part 1 executive summary. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/122/18%5Fsuppl%5F3/S640. Accessed October 21, 2010.
American Heart Association. Hands only CPR. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3060861. Updated July 20, 2009. Accessed October 15, 2010.
Cardiac arrest. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4481. Accessed May 21, 2007.
Chen MA, Eisenberg MS, Meischke H. Impact of in-home defibrillators on postmyocardial infarction patients and their significant others: an interview study. Heart Lung. 2002;31:173-185.
Jorgenson DB, Skarr T, Russell JK, Snyder DE, Uhrbrock K. AED use in businesses, public facilities and homes by minimally trained first responders. Resuscitation. 2003;59:225-233.
The links in the chain of survival. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3012016. Updated April 21, 2008. Accessed April 11, 2011.
Marenco JP. Automated external defibrillators are cost-effective on large and medium capacity commercial aircraft. Evidence-based Healthcare. 2002;6;58-59.
Murray CL, Steffensen I. Automated external defibrillators for home use. Issues Emerg Health Technol. 2005;1-4.
Smoots E. Practical prevention: how defibrillators in public places can save lives. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated March 14, 2011. Accessed April 11, 2011.
Page RL, Joglar JA, Kowal RC, et al. Use of automated external defibrillators by a US Airline. N Engl J Med. 2000:343:1210-1216.
Terence D, et al. Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343:1206-1209.
10/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Bobrow BJ, Spaite DW, Berg RA, et al. Chest compression-only CPR by lay rescuers and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA. 2010;304(13):1447-1454. SOS-KANTO study group. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study. Lancet. 2007;369(9565):920-926.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 04/2011
- Update Date: 04/11/2011