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Immunization Guidelines for Children
- Diphtheria—a respiratory infection caused by bacteria that may result in breathing problems, coma, and death if not treated
- Haemophilus influenzae type B—a bacterial infection occurring primarily in children; if severe, can lead to meningitis , death, and permanent brain damage
- Hepatitis A—an infection caused by the hepatitis A virus that affects the liver
- Hepatitis B—an infection caused by the hepatitis B virus that can lead to scarring of the liver and liver cancer
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)—the virus that causes some warts and is associated with cervical cancer
- Influenza—a common viral infection occurring during the winter months
- Measles—a viral respiratory infection that may lead to diarrhea, ear infections, pneumonia , swelling of the brain, seizures, and death
- Meningococcal—a cause of bacterial meningitis, a serious, often fatal, disease
- Mumps—a viral infection of the lymph nodes that may lead to meningitis, inflammation of the testicles, ovaries, or pancreas, and permanent deafness
- Pertussis (whooping cough)—a bacterial respiratory infection that may lead to pneumonia, swelling of the brain, and death, especially in infants
- Pneumococcal disease—a bacterial infection that is a common cause of pneumonia in adults but may lead to ear infections and meningitis in children
- Polio—a viral infection of the nervous system that can lead to disability and death
- Rotavirus—major cause of potentially life-threatening gastroenteritis (vomiting, diarrhea)
- Rubella (German measles)—a viral respiratory infection that, when contracted by a pregnant woman, can cause birth defects, including deafness, cataracts, heart abnormalities, intellectual disability , and liver and spleen damage
- Tetanus (lockjaw)—a bacterial infection of the nervous system that can result in death
- Varicella (chickenpox)—a herpes virus that may lead to pneumonia and encephalitis (swelling of the brain)
- DTaP—three vaccines in one shot given in a series of 5 doses; protects against diphtheria , tetanus, and pertussis; Tdap is a vaccine recommended as a booster dose in early adolescence
- HepA—given in a series of two doses to protect against hepatitis A
- Hep B—given as a series of three shots to help prevent hepatitis B
- Hib—given as a series of three (or four) shots to help prevent Haemophilus influenza type B
- HPV—given as a series of three shots to help prevent HPV, which can cause genital warts and cervical cancer
- Influenza—given annually to help prevent the flu (Some children aged 6 months to 8 years old may need a series of two shots.)
- MCV4—one shot and a booster dose given to protect against bacterial meningitis
- MMR—given as two shots to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella
- PCV—given in a series of four doses to protect against the pneumococcal bacteria
- Polio vaccine—given in a series of four doses to prevent polio
- Rotavirus vaccine—given in a series of 2 or 3 doses to protect against rotavirus
- Varicella—given as two shots to help prevent chickenpox
Childhood Immunization Schedule
|Age||Recommended vaccines||Date received|
|Yearly after 6 months||
Some Children Should Not Be Vaccinated
- Had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a component in the vaccine
- Are severely ill (wait until the child has recovered)
- Are taking medicines to suppress the immune system
- Have certain types of cancer or other diseases
American Academy of Pediatrics Childhood Immunization Support Program http://www.cispimmunize.org/
Vaccines and Immunizations Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/
Childhood vaccines: what they are and why your child needs them. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/028.xml . Updated December 2010. Accessed July 29, 2012.
Human papillomavirus vaccine. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated June 19, 2012. Accessed July 29, 2012.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/ . Updated May 31, 2012. Accessed July 29, 2012.
Recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 6 years: United States 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/child/0-6yrs-schedule-pr.pdf. Updated 2012. Accessed September 18, 2012.
Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 7-18 years—United States, 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/schedules/downloads/child/7-18yrs-schedule-pr.pdf. Accessed February 16, 2012.
Vaccine information statement: influenza vaccine: inactivated. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flu.pdf. Updated July 2, 2012. Accessed September 18, 2012.
Vaccine information statement: influenza vaccine: live, intranasal. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flulive.pdf. Updated July 2, 2012. Accessed September 18, 2012.
Vaccine-preventable childhood diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/child-vpd.htm . Updated February 25, 2012. Accessed July 29, 2012.
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccination. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/varicella/default.htm . Updated April 5, 2012. Accessed July 29, 2012.
9/18/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) - United States, 2012-13 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:613-618.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 07/2012
- Update Date: 09/18/2012