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- Stress and anxiety
- Abnormal alignment of the teeth or jaws
- Chronic stress or anxiety
- Aggressive or competitive personality
- Smoking tobacco or drinking caffeinated beverages
- Abuse of drugs or alcohol (especially methamphetamines)
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
- Age: 40 or younger; especially common in women aged 27-40
- Family member with bruxism
- Facial or oral trauma
- Use of psychiatric medications, especially antidepressants
- Prior serious head injury
- Complication resulting from a disorder, such as Huntington's disease or Parkinson's disease
- Grinding sounds during sleep
- Teeth that are sensitive to heat, cold, or brushing
- Tense facial or jaw muscles
- Teeth that are worn down, flattened, fractured or chipped
- Hairline cracks or wearing of the enamel on some teeth
- Sore teeth
- Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis)
- Headache, especially when waking in the morning
- Damage to the inside of the cheek (from biting or chewing)
- Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD)
Behavioral or Cognitive Treatment
- A protective mouth appliance, such as a night guard. It can absorb the pressure of constant night grinding.
- Correction of misaligned teeth if your bruxism might be caused by this.
- Muscle relaxants before sleep
- Mild sleeping aids
- Injection of botulinum toxin (Botox) in severe cases if other treatment not working
Academy of General Dentistry http://www.agd.org
American Dental Association http://www.ada.org
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca
The Canadian Dental Hygienists Association http://www.cdha.ca
Bruxism. University of Virginia Health System website. Available at: http://uvahealth.com/services/dentistry/conditions-treatments-1/11995/?searchterm=bruxism. Accessed January 22, 2013.
Chang H. Botulism toxin: use in disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Dent Today. 2005;24:48,50-51.
Tan EK, Jankovic J. Treating severe bruxism with botulinum toxin. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131:211-216.
Teeth grinding. American Dental Association's Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/teeth-grinding.aspx. Accessed January 22, 2013. Bruxism/teeth grinding. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bruxism/DS00337/DSECTION=causes. Accessed August 30, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013