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(Graves' Disease; Overactive Thyroid)
|The Thyroid Gland|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Graves' disease—an autoimmune disorder that occurs when the immune system produces antibodies that attack cells of the thyroid gland
- Toxic uninodular goiter—a single area/nodule in the thyroid gland is overactive
- Toxic multinodular goiter—multiple nodules in the thyroid gland which overproduce thyroid hormone
- Thyroiditis—inflammation of the thyroid that may later lead to hypothyroidism
- Taking too much thyroid hormone—very rarely from meat sources contaminated by animal thyroid glands
- Pregnancy—postpartum thyroiditis (hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism)
- Family history of Graves' disease
- Certain viral infections
- Heart palpitations—more common in people over 50 years old
- Rapid or irregular pulse
- Shortness of breath
- Heat intolerance
- Nervousness, restlessness, or irritibility
- Goiter—enlarged thyroid gland
- Increased number of bowel movements/diarrhea
- Irregular or no menstrual periods
- Unexplained weight loss despite an increased appetite
- Increased sweating
- Double vision
- Lumpy, red thickening of the skin in front of the shins
- Blood tests—to measure level of thyroid hormones and look for thyroid antibodies
- Radioactive iodine uptake test—to measure how much iodine the thyroid gland absorbs over the course of several hours
- Eye protection before sleep
- Artificial tears
The American Thyroid Association http://www.thyroid.org
National Graves' Disease Foundation http://www.ngdf.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Thyroid Foundation of Canada http://www.thyroid.ca
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocrine Practice. 2002;8:457-469.
Hyperthyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 12, 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013.
Shomon M. Frequently asked questions on Graves' disease & hyperthyroidism. Thyroid-Info website. Available at: http://www.thyroid-info.com/articles/hyperthyroidism-faq.htm. Updated November 25, 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013.
Van Geest RJ, Sa sim IV, Koppeschaar HP, et al. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy for patients with moderately severe Graves' orbitopathy: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;148:229-237.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Nyirenda MJ, Taylor PN, Stoddart M, Beckett GJ, Toft AD. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-receptor antibody and thyroid hormone concentrations in smokers vs nonsmokers with Graves disease treated with carbimazole. JAMA. 2009;301:162-164.
7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Safety: propylthiouracil. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm164162.htm. Updated April 21, 2010. Accessed November 25, 2013.
6/10/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Alhefdhi A, Mazeh H, et al. Role of postoperative vitamin D and/or calcium routine supplementation in preventing hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oncologist. 2013;18(5):553-542.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 11/2013
- Update Date: 00/61/2014