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(Degenerative Joint Disease; Arthritis, Osteo-)
|Joints Affected by Osteoarthritis|
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- Mild-to-severe pain in a joint, especially after overuse or long periods of inactivity, such as sitting for a long time
- Creaking or grating sound in the joint
- Swelling, stiffness, limited movement of the joint, especially in the morning
- Deformity of the joint
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Opiates and opiate-like medications
- Topical pain medications that are applied to the skin
- Viscosupplementation injection
- Corticosteroid injection
Exercise and Physical Therapy
Heat and Ice
- Reposition bones to redistribute stress on the joint
- Replace joints
- Remove loose pieces of bone or cartilage from joints
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Do regular, gentle exercise, such as walking, stretching, swimming, or yoga.
- Avoid repetitive motions and risky activities that may contribute to joint injury, especially after age 40.
- With advancing age, certain activities may have to be stopped or modified. It is important to continue to be active, so find an activity that suits you.
American College of Rheumatology http://www.rheumatology.org
The Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org
The Arthritis Society http://www.arthritis.ca
Seniors Canada http://www.seniors.gc.ca
American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. 2000 update. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:1905-1915.
Jordan K, Arden N, et al. EULAR recommendations 2003: an evidence based approach to the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62:1145-1155.
Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.arthritis.org/conditions-treatments/disease-center/osteoarthritis . Accessed September 3, 2013.
Osteoarthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Osteoarthritis/default.asp . Updated July 2010. Accessed September 3, 2013.
Sinusas, K. Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(1):49-56.
van den Berg WB. Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67:555-556.
10/21/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us Fransen M, McConnell S. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD004376.
12/11/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Rutjes WJ, Nuesch E, Sterchi R, et al. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002823.
10/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Wandel S, Jüni P, Tendal B, et al. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4675.
10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.
11/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: US Food and Drug Administration. FDA clears Cymbalta to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm232708.htm . Updated April 19, 2013. Accessed July 23, 2013.
11/29/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: French HP, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review. Man Ther. 2011;16(2):109-117.
7/15/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Dilek B, Gözüm M, Sahin E, et al. Efficacy of paraffin bath therapy in hand osteoarthritis: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Apr;94(4):642-9.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Update Date: 00/90/2013