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Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Newborns
(Hyaline Membrane Disease; RDS)
|Respiratory System of an Infant|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Birth before 37 weeks; increased risk and severity of condition with earlier prematurity
- Mother with insulin dependent diabetes
- Multiple birth
- Cesarean section delivery
- Cold stress
- Precipitous delivery
- Previously affected infant
- Being male
- Hypertension (high blood pressure) during pregnancy
- Difficulty breathing, apnea
- Rapid, shallow breathing
- Delayed or weak cry
- Grunting noise with every breath
- Flaring of the nostrils
- Frothing at the lips
- Blue color around the lips
- Swelling of the extremities
- Decreased urine output
- Lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio
- Phosphatidyl glycerol
- Laboratory studies—done to rule out infection
- Physical exam—includes checking the baby's breathing and looking for bluish color around the lips or on trunk
- Testing for blood gases—to check the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
- Chest x-ray—a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, in this case the heart and lungs
Inhaled Nitric Oxide
- Tube feeding—a tube is inserted through the baby's mouth and into the stomach
- Parenteral feeding—nutrients are delivered directly into a vein
- Get good prenatal care. Start as early as possible in pregnancy.
- Eat a healthful diet. Take vitamins as suggested by your doctor.
- Do not smoke. Avoid alcohol or drug use.
- Only take medicines that your doctor has approved.
- You may be given steroids about 24 hours before delivery. Steroids can help your baby's lungs develop faster.
- Your doctor may do an amniocentesis. This test will check the maturity of your baby's lungs. The results will help determine the best time for delivery.
American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
About Kids Health http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
American Lung Association website. Available at: http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/solddc-chapters/rds.pdf. Accessed July 16, 2012.
Hermansen C, Lorah K. Respiratory Distress in the Newborn. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Oct 1;76(7):987-994.
Respiratory distress syndrome. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/childrens%5Fhealth%5Fissues/problems%5Fin%5Fnewborns/respiratory%5Fdistress%5Fsyndrome.html. Accessed July 18, 2012.
RM Kleigman, RE Behrman, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th Edition. Eds. Saunders Publishers, Philadelphia PA, 2007.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Simon and Schuster, Inc.; 1999.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013