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Sodium, Fat, and Cholesterol Controlled Diet
What Is a Heart Healthy Diet?
- People with any form of cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, previous heart attack, or previous stroke .
- People with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes
- Anyone who wants to lower their risk of developing cardiovascular disease
- Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol —Also known as bad cholesterol, this is the cholesterol that tends to build up along your arteries. Bad cholesterol levels are increased by eating fats that are saturated or hydrogenated. Optimal level of this cholesterol is less than 100 mg/dL. Risk for heart disease increases when it goes over 130 mg/dL.
- High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol —Also known as good cholesterol, this type of cholesterol actually carries cholesterol away from your arteries and may, therefore, help lower your risk of having a heart attack. You want this level to be high. Although there is no standard goal, you want to keep this number above 60 mg/dL. Risks for heart disease increases when it drops below 40 mg/dL.. You can raise this good cholesterol by eating olive oil, canola oil, avocados, or nuts. Exercise raises this level, too.
- The fats that are good for you include:
- Monounsaturated fat —found in oils such as olive and canola, avocados, and nuts and natural nut butters; can decrease total cholesterol levels, while keeping levels of HDL cholesterol high
- Polyunsaturated fat —found in oils such as safflower, sunflower, soybean, corn, and sesame; can decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol
- Omega-3 fatty acids —a subcategory of polyunsaturated fats, such as those found in fatty fish like salmon, trout, tuna, mackerel, herring, and sardines; these fats can decrease risk of arrhythmias, decrease triglyceride levels, and slightly lower blood pressure
The fats that you want to limit are:
—found in animal products, many fast foods, and a few vegetables; increases total blood cholesterol, including LDL levels
- Animal fats that are saturated include: butter, lard, whole-milk dairy products, meat fat, and poultry skin
- Vegetable fats that are saturated include: palm oil, coconut oil, cocoa butter
- Hydrogenated or trans fat are found in margarine and vegetable shortening, most shelf-stable snack foods, and fried foods. They increase LDL and decrease HDL. This is a fat that has no healthful qualities at all and should be eliminated from your diet.
- Saturated fat —found in animal products, many fast foods, and a few vegetables; increases total blood cholesterol, including LDL levels
Food Choices on a Heart Healthy Diet
|Food Category||Foods Recommended||Foods to Avoid|
|Meats and Beans||
|Fats and Oils||
|Snacks, Sweets, and Condiments||
- Make whole grains, fruits, and vegetables the base of your diet.
- Choose heart-healthy fats such as canola, olive, and flaxseed oil, and foods high in heart-healthy fats, such as nuts, seeds, soybeans, tofu, and fish.
- Eat fish at least twice per week; the fish highest in omega-3 fatty acids and lowest in mercury include salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines, and canned chunk light tuna. If you eat fish less than twice per week or have high triglycerides, talk to your doctor about taking fish oil supplements.
Read food labels.
- For products low in fat and cholesterol, look for fat free, low-fat, cholesterol free, saturated fat free, and trans fat free—Also scan the Nutrition Facts Label, which lists saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol amounts.
- For products low in sodium, look for sodium free, very low sodium, low sodium, no added salt, and unsalted
- Skip the salt when cooking or at the table; if food needs more flavor, get creative and try out different herbs and spices. Garlic and onion also add substantial flavor to foods.
- Trim any visible fat off meat and poultry before cooking, and drain the fat off after browning.
- Use cooking methods that require little or no added fat, such as grilling, boiling, baking, poaching, broiling, roasting, steaming, stir-frying, and sautéing.
- Avoid fast food and convenience food. They tend to be high in saturated and trans fat and have a lot of added salt.
- Talk to a registered dietitian for individualized diet advice.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics http://www.eatright.org
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca
American Heart Association Nutrition Committee, Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation . 2006;114(1):82-96.
Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf . Accessed February 15, 2013.
Dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what . Updated February 14. 2013. Accessed February 15, 2013.
What your cholesterol levels mean. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/What-Your-Cholesterol-Levels-Mean%5FUCM%5F305562%5FArticle.jsp . Updated February 8, 2013. Accessed Febrary 15, 2013.
- Reviewer: Dianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013