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Benefits of Breastfeeding
Benefits for Mom, Too
Steps for Successful Breastfeeding
- Nurse early and often . Begin feeding your baby shortly after birth, ideally within the first hour. Each day, feed every one to three hours, except during one longer sleeping stretch. During the first 24 hours, your baby should nurse at least five minutes on each breast at each feeding. Alternate which breast you begin feeding on. Gradually increase to 15 minutes on each side. The first milk produced is called colostrum. This is a thick yellowish liquid that is rich in protein and antibodies. It gives your baby’s immune system a quick boost. Within a few days, your mature milk comes in.
- Feed from both breasts at each feeding . If you don’t feed from each breast, you may get a plugged milk duct.
- Breastfeed on demand . Breast milk is more easily and quickly digested than formula. Your baby will need to eat more often than a baby who takes formula. Your baby will likely want to eat every two to four hours. Watch your baby for hunger signals such as: being more alert or active; rooting (turning his or her head in search of a nipple); and mouthing (putting hands in his or her mouth and/or making a sucking motion with the mouth). Crying is a late sign of hunger.
Find a comfortable position for you and baby
. There are four main positions. Try each to find what works for you. It is also a good idea to vary the positions.
- Cradle hold—sit with your arm bent across your lap. The baby’s head rests in your elbow and her or his body along your forearm and lap. The baby’s chest should be against your skin so he or she does not have to turn his or her head to reach the nipple.
- Cross-cradle hold—sit with your arm bent across your lap. This time, the baby’s head is in your hand and his or her body extends toward your elbow. This is helpful in learning to get the baby latched on, as you can control his or her head better.
- Football hold—sit with your arm bent alongside your body. The baby’s head rests in your hand, with his or her head facing your breast and his or her body extended along your forearm next to your body. This position is more comfortable if you have engorged breasts, sore nipples, or plugged ducts. It is also good after a c-section, because the baby is not resting on your sensitive stomach. If you are able to multitask, this is a good position for nursing twins.
- Lying down—lie on your side with the baby on his or her side facing you. Put the baby’s face to your breast. Make sure the baby is breathing through her nose. Use pillows for support. This is a good position for night feedings or if you have had a cesarean section.
Breastfeeding Positions © 2011 Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Make sure the baby is properly latched on
. This means that the baby has both the nipple and the areola (colored area around the nipple) in his mouth. If the baby sucks on only the nipple, you will have pain and the baby will not get enough milk. Here are some tips for latching on:
- Hold your baby in a comfortable position. With your free hand, cup your breast with your fingers underneath and your thumb on top. This is called a C-hold. Or, try the U-hold, where your fingers are on one side of the breast and your thumb on the other. Support your breast in this way for the first six weeks of breastfeeding.
- Bring your baby close to your breast. Stroke her cheek with your finger or brush her bottom lip with your nipple. These motions stimulate the baby’s rooting reflex, which causes her to turn her head and open her mouth.
- When your baby opens his mouth, put your nipple and areola far into the mouth, while pulling his body towards you. If the baby does not have a good grasp on both the areola and nipple, try again. Press your finger on the corner of the baby’s mouth to break the suction and move him off the nipple.
- Check that the baby is able to breathe through her nose. If the breast is blocking the nose, push down on your breast next to her nose to allow breathing room.
- Take care of mom. To meet the demands of breastfeeding, sleep when your baby sleeps, drink a glass of water while you are nursing, and eat a well-balanced diet. Limit caffeine to 300 mg per day (1-3 cups of coffee). Minimize intake of alcoholic drinks. If you have a drink, wait at least two hours to breastfeed. Avoid drugs including nicotine. Check with your doctor about any prescription drugs that you take.
- Talk to your doctor before taking prescription and over-the-counter medicine, as well as herbs and supplements. Some medicines can pass through the breast milk to your baby and may not be safe. Drugs can also interfere with how much milk you produce.
Concerns About Breastfeeding
Is Your Baby Getting Enough?
What If I Go Back to Work?
How Do I Pump and Store Breast Milk?
Will My Nipples Be Sore?
- Ensure that your baby is positioned correctly and latched on. Try the football or cross-cradle holds for more control of your baby’s head.
- Babies suck harder at the beginning of a feeding, so begin on the less sore nipple. As soon as the soreness resolves, return to alternating the starting side.
- If one nipple is extremely sore, try feeding for a shorter time (10 minutes), but more often.
- Keep your nipples dry. After a feeding, air dry or pat your nipples dry.
- If your skin is cracked, keep your nipples covered. Try lanolin cream, expressed breast milk, breast shells, or gel pads.
- If the pain prevents you from nursing, use a pump to express your milk. Pumping is gentler on your nipples, allows you to feed your baby breast milk, and maintains your milk supply. Pump for two to three days to allow your nipples to heal.
- Watch for signs of a breast infection. Call your doctor immediately if you have chills, fever, headache, flu-like symptoms, or pain or redness in your breast.
- Call your doctor if you have blisters, cracking, bleeding, or pain that continues during or between feedings.
What Is Breast Engorgement?
Use Your Resources
Breastfeeding. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated June 3, 2013. Accessed June 10, 2013.
Breastfeeding. US Department of Health and Human Services Women's Health website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/index.html . Updated April 5, 2013. Accessed June 10, 2013.
Breastfeeding: helpful hints for you. Am Fam Physician . 2000;61(7):2103-2014. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000401/2103ph.html . Accessed June 10, 2013.
Breastfeeding vs. formula feeding. Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/food/infants/breast%5Fbottle%5Ffeeding.html . Updated January 2012. Accessed June 10, 2013.
Feeding your newborn. Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/food/infants/feednewborn.html . Updated September 2011. Accessed June 10, 2013.
Nutrition in infants. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/approach%5Fto%5Fthe%5Fcare%5Fof%5Fnormal%5Finfants%5Fand%5Fchildren/nutrition%5Fin%5Finfants.html . Updated July 2012. Accessed June 10, 2013.
Tips for breastfeeding success. Am Fam Physician . 2001;64(6):991-992.
10/9/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Barclay AR, Russell RK, Wilson ML, Gilmour WH, Satsangi J, Wilson DC. Systematic review: the role of breastfeeding in the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr . 2009;155(3):421-426.
10/21/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Guxens M, Mendez MA, Moltó-Puigmartí C, et al. Breastfeeding, long-chain polyunsaturated Fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development. Pediatrics . 2011;128(4):e880-889.
7/15/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Vieira F, Bachion MM, Mota DD, et al. A systematic review of the interventions for nipple trauma in breastfeeding. J Nurs Scholarsh . 2013 June;45(2):116-125.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014
- Update Date: 05/28/2014